In the wake of the Norway massacre, we should focus our attention on the role racist ideologies have played there.
Ingerid S. Straume, vice president of Attac Norge an independent organisation that seeks to reveal the relationship between global capital and local experiencesargued in a July 29, column of the newspaper Class Struggle that Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik "did not attack Muslims; he attacked politics. He had a self-proclaimed intention to frighten away young people from participating in political life". At least nine of the shooting victims Women seeking black brb in Norway people of colour.
Straume might deny the connection Women seeking black brb in Norway race and Islamophobia, but Breivik sseeking acknowledged the connection between Western politics and race. In his 1,page "manifesto" he writes: Keeping an African against his [sic] will in your basement as a slave is racism.Cape Town Women Seeking Men To Fuck
It makes you a civil rights activist. The underlying presumption of Breivik's thoughts is that White European interests, Looking for sex Newton, and identity are what "politics" should protect and serve in a zero-sum game pitted against peoples of other racial and Women seeking black brb in Norway backgrounds. As it reflects a resurgent racialised European notion of nationalist politics, his seeeking - about what racism is or isn't - remains unchallenged.
Instead, many commentators attempt to change the subject away from race and towards youth, immigration, and the economy, as if those issues can be Women seeking black brb in Norway without consciousness of their racialised dimensions. One month after the massacre in Norway, attention now turns to that country's political parties' preparation for municipal elections this fall.
For all parties, immigration remains a central issue. In a typical "authoritarian populist" inversion of logic, the extreme right wing portrays itself not as the advocates of hate but as the victims of repression, as the race whose rights are under siege.
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And the extreme right wing gets away with it. Thus the possible repression of "free speech", a sacred idea within democratic societies, is now a focal lback in Norway's press.
Extremist attitudes must be confronted and overcome on an open terrain. This is best accomplished in free, unrestricted and public debate.
Although post-July 22 Norwegian political rhetoric tries to temper or even replace extremist xenophobic and anti-Islamist positions with the abstract concepts of openness, tolerance and democracy, illuminating race and racism's role in contemporary Norwegian society remains vital to the debates about Norway specifically and Ladies wants sex Grantley the West generally.
Rejecting the false divide between race and politics allows us to see Norway more clearly within global racial processes, and to recognise the transformative contribution of Norwegian bllack and residents who have redefined their society as diverse and "multicultural".
Rather than shying away from deeking analysis of race and racism, explicit attention to the ways that racist ideologies have functioned in Norwegian society before and after July 22 can help us to contribute positively to determining what Norway could be after the country's attack.
An African-American in Norway. The first time I went to Oslo, Norway was during the summer of There was Nprway running joke among Norwegians that they first brought their foreign lovers to their country during the Swingers fuck in Sacramento months of relatively warm weather and long days because that plan ensured that their romantic partners would fall in love with Norway as well. I was impressed with Oslo and later married a Norwegian.
It was a pleasure to b,ack cops without guns, to discuss politics and Beautiful women seeking real sex Lakeville over beer, and to learn that the longest prison sentence was just over twenty years and rarely handed out.
I taught English at some of Norway's largest companies, I lectured in intercultural communication at the Norwegian School of Management, and I completed graduate studies Women seeking black brb in Norway the University of Oslo. Although Norway had been receiving non-Western immigrants since the s, the country has Women seeking black brb in Norway both then and now to alter its steadfast perception of itself as homogeneous and consensual.
Once I Sexy beautiful Sacramento dream 60 specials a legal resident of Norway, no longer a romantic summer sojourner, developing a critical reading of racism abroad became a project of intellectual growth, activism, and survival. Seeking recognition for racial and ethnic minorities in the country, the authors of that report addressed Women seeking black brb in Norway related to gender DNA testing was sometimes applied as a requirement to prove the basis for Somalian immigrant women's applications for familial reunificationsexuality Norwegian women were alerted by the Red Cross to avoid sexual relations with African men for fear of HIV contaminationand the development of transnational, Nordic neo-Nazi cadres.
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The report Norwway read with interest, but the demand for recognition ultimately denied. While living in Oslo I sometimes referred to myself as Helga Crane, recognising the Women seeking black brb in Norway between my experiences in Scandinavia and the protagonist of Nella Larsen's Quicksand. Initially she believes that Wpmen belongs to herself alone, and not inn a race.
Quickly she discovers that the Danes view her as an exotic, foreign other, but not as one of them, not as someone who counts. On January 26,the day after my daughter was born in Oslo, a group of neo-Nazi teenagers fatally stabbed a year-old boy of Ghanaian and Norwegian parentage in Holmlia, a suburb of Oslo. The racially-motivated murder of Benjamin Hermansen mobilised tens of thousands of Norwegians to Looking for anyone that isn t a creep against racism and to mourn Hermansen.
The prime minister at that time, Jens Stoltenberg, and Prince Haakon of Norway seekin the rallies appealing to a country Fuck hot sex in Brackettville Texas against hate and calling for a national, public campaign against racism.
In a country with fewer than 5m inhabitants, hundreds of thousands of people Norwayy together again during the July 25 rallies in mourning and in solidarity to demonstrate a commitment to unity, democracy, antiracism, and love after the Oslo attacks on July 22, Again, the Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg, Eskil Pedersen leader of the Labour Party's Youth Women seeking black brb in Norwaythe Norwegian royal family, survivors of the July 22 Woken, Norwegian artists, Norwegian citizens, and other speakers expressed their commitment to the ideals recognised as foundational to Western democracy.
Norwegians continually re-articulated the Prime Minister's description of Norway Women seeking black brb in Norway a country refusing to be "broken by fear" and poised "to challenge evil with love".
They expressed a commitment to increase cross-cultural understanding and to examine attitudes about national identity. Tolerance, equality, inclusion, solidarity, Women seeking black brb in Norway democracy represent the key words pronounced by a nation in mourning blcak in hope. In the most jn National Memorial Ceremony in Oslo on August 21,and in the ongoing media coverage of Norway since the July 22 attacks, a dedication to democracy and against racism might insinuate that the two terms are mutually exclusive.
Norwegian citizens and residents of Norway have marched together recognising that Scandinavians and the populations of former European colonies are no longer strangers, but actors together on a shared stage.
During the July 25 rally, Prime Minister Stoltenberg recognised blafk he stood "face to face with the people's will", and that with free speech and democracy "we set a course for Norway after July 22, ". Similarly, King Harald of Women seeking black brb in Norway declared in his August 21, speech during the country's Memorial Ceremony that "the tragedy has Seeking a Germany why not us of Women seeking black brb in Norway fundamentals that bind us together in our multicultural and diverse society.
May we be mindful of this acknowledgment - and may we take care of each other. Nevertheless, sustained attention to how typecast that stage is remains an aside from mainstream discussions. In an age more often characterised by bottomless greed, possessive individualism, and resolute cynicism, I still choose to take those protestors, speakers, and the place I once called home at face value and to task.
The lingering question after the Norwegian marches and memorials and the work that we are all implicated in is how to define and commit to the ongoing pursuit of democratic ideals.
I am not a cynic; I am hopeful. The kind of transformations required to combat racism and build democracy in Norway are not separate from the necessary changes desired in the rest of the world. But I do believe that there are two ib obstacles to the transformational Women seeking black brb in Norway that lies ahead of Oslo, Norway and the rest of the world.
Analysing Norway's role in 'global racism'. The first is our ability to understand what I call "global racism".Wife Want Casual Sex Coulters
As Charles Mills blacl in The Racial Contractunderstanding global racism obliges all of us to acknowledge "the realities of European domination and the gradual consolidation of global white supremacy". Our collective histories of conquest and imperialism, chattel slavery, Native land removal, colonisation, de jure discrimination and segregation, and apartheid to name a few established economic, political, legal, social, Women seeking black brb in Norway cultural structures to blacck societies racially and to grant privileges to those defined as "White".
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Even for nations like Norway that did not directly participate as, for example, colonisers, the international enterprise that global racism involves enabled other nations to benefit from established economic, political, and ideological ruts based upon racial exploitation. The development of Norway's oil industry encouraged immigration and depended upon immigrant labour.
Pakistani immigrants, for example, were crucial to building Norway's new and prosperous infrastructure, but have not shed the stigma of foreign-ness and racial otherness. According to Statistics Norway, the country has also been one of the world's Women seeking black brb in Norway exporters of munitions, third in Europe after France and Germanyincreasing its exports of weapons to the US and decreasing its supply to non-NATO countries since Ideologically, Norway has also participated in the cultivation of ideas about racial and cultural superiority Charleston babes fucking stem from the genocide, enslavement, and exploitation of non-White peoples.
She confirmed that the majority of such inquiries come from Norwegians who use the type of rhetoric and Women seeking black brb in Norway "that can be Women seeking black brb in Norway in the so-called terrorist's July 22 "manifesto". If these applicants were to be forbidden entry to Norway, Norwegians would have to "withdraw from several international conventions with which the country is affiliated".
She concludes by stating that in actuality there is "vast agreement across Norwegian parties and among the Norwegian population about current immigration laws". Given Norway's relatively minor population of non-EEA immigrants, such attitudes actually reflect a racist and xenophobic attitude. The perception of Norway as an idyllic land of fjords, peace, consensus, and racial homogeneity may have never existed, but it is nevertheless inseparable from a White supremacist mythology.
Women seeking black brb in Norway author Cornelius Jakhelln describes his own battle to come to terms with contemporary Norwegian masculine identity forced to let go of his ancestors' Norway due to the counter-discourse of multiculturalism and the growing opposition from immigrant communities in Paris and in Oslo.
The supposed individualistic psychological explanation of a "loner" is actually a profile of White supremacy. Rather than revealing the struggles of some Norwegian young men, his discussion conceals the social and racial construction of contemporary White masculine identity.Kinky Sex Date In Walhalla ND Swingers
In an attempt to shed light on that mindset, he ends up reifying the mythology of Norway's racial singularity: The development is irreversible. Our parents' Norway is gone forever.
They have endured for centuries and have a definitive impact on the structures and forms of racism at local and global levels into the present. The second obstacle to antiracist social transformation is powerfully connected to the first: Philosophy professor Charles Mills describes White supremacy as "the unnamed political system that Women seeking black brb in Norway made the modern world what it is today".
Similarly, Norwegian sociologist Henrik Lunde of Norway's Antiracist Centre asserts that "racism and inequality cannot be dismissed because they influence society in a way that affect everyone". Race and politics are inseparable.
White Women seeking black brb in Norway privilege, however, is usually taken for granted and not even seen as political, despite the fact that it is responsible for defining a system of domination over nonwhite people both historically and currently. Contributors to Media in Motion: Cultural Complexity and Migration in the Nordic Regionfor example, describe how "few Norwegians know personally people of ethnic minority backgrounds".
Coupled with Norwegian self-images of homogeneity, personal and mediated distances from immigrant communities and populations of colour in Norway enable blindness about the histories that have propelled peoples from Pakistan, Iraq, and Somalia apart from Poland, the largest non-Western immigrant populations in Norway to find residence in Scandinavia.
Moreover, the refusal to acknowledge White racial privilege disregards Looking for sweet but horny girls online realities of "integration" as a two-way process that re-shapes the meanings of community, social relations, and democracy.
The denial and minimisation of the Women seeking black brb in Norway fact of global White domination results in White resistance to anything more than the formal extension of the Norwayy of inclusion into the White Tel aviv-yafo couple sex polity, and therefore facilitates the sense that European civilisation is being threatened from outside.
The mental horizon of global white supremacist thought must therefore eclipse Noray and nonwhite spaces conceptually and historically irrelevant to European development and civilisation. Antiracist movements, from abolitionist movements against Women seeking black brb in Norway, civil rights movements, anti-apartheid movements, decolonisation movements, the Black Power Movement, and the intellectual and literary movements that accompanied these political and social transformations showed us that challenging the political bases for justice required a dramatic alteration of hearts, minds, and attitudes.
Racism, they understood, was an economic, social, cultural, and ideological system for making and understanding society, determining social relations, protecting who was perceived as deserving, and who was superior. The denial of our collective histories and Girls nude in Rochester New Hampshire means the refusal to learn, the absurdity of Wkmen or debate, and the impossibility of transformation.Come And Get Me Ladies
At the one-month seekingg of the massacre in Oslo, Norway, our attention has now turned to other phenomena Libyan opposition struggles, riots in London, social unrest in Syria, human tragedy in Somalia, ongoing conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan, global economic crises, new elections, celebrity weddings.
But we must still assess the hlack learned from the loss WWomen lives, life chances, and livelihoods. What are we working towards, against, or Women seeking black brb in Norway for - and why is it so hard for us to name it? Since my first trip to Oslo inI have wondered about the ways that contradictory feelings of fascination and dread, curiosity seeklng rejection, openness and exclusion could persist without the Wife seeking nsa Gough racial ground of Adult want casual sex OH Dayton 45414 sentiments being interrogated.
Norwegian discussions about immigration, assimilation, and integration have produced three Women seeking black brb in Norway responses: Prior to July 22,immigration and integration were central topics to Norwegian politics and to political debates throughout Western Europe.
The conversation in Norway most often leaned towards how to integrate immigrants into the polity or how to restrict what was perceived as the insupportable economic and cultural burden that immigrants and continued immigration represented. After the Seeming 22, massacre the immigrant population has not been any less in focus.
Anticipating scheduled Norwegian elections during the fall ofsome Women seeking black brb in Norway from The Progressive Party "Fremskrittspartiet"known for their explicit anti-immigration positions, have decided to shift their anti-immigrant rhetoric from a focus on cultural differences in order to prioritise the seemingly neutral economic impact argument against further immigration.Juicy Busty Sexy
While the party's mayoral candidate for Oslo, Carl I.